Photovoltaic technology is powered by photovoltaic solar energy, obtained by converting sunlight to electricity using PV materials and devices. The process of this conversion is referred to as the photoelectric effect. It refers to how a PV cell absorbs photons (beams of light) and converts them into electrons.
PV cells are semiconductor materials usually made out of different types of silicon and sometimes an even thinner semiconductor material. Each PV cell is relatively small in size, generating about 1 or 2 watts of power. To effectively utilize PV cells in solar PV technology, the cells must be protected on each side by protective materials like glass or plastic. To increase the power output of the PV cells, the cells are connected and formed into larger units called modules.